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LIPCHITZ, Ossip/Jacques

Druskieniki, Lithuania 1891 - Capri, Italy 1973

Prométhée étranglant le vautour

Prometheus Strangling the Vulture

begun 1943, cast 1952-1953

bronze

statue

Dimensions (HxWxD): 8' 12 x 7' 8 in.

Acc. No.: 1952-8-1

Credit Line: Purchased with the Lisa Norris Elkins Fund, 1952

Photo credit: Philadelphia Museum of Art


Provenance

  • 1952, Purchased with the Lisa Norris Elkins Fund

Bibliography

  • Museum's website, 26 April 2010
  • Association for Public Art website, August 17, 2015
  • 1985 Norton Naudé
    Sculptural Monuments in an Outdoor Environment, A conference held at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, November 2, 1983, Edited by Virginia Norton Naudé, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 2005, p. 11, fig. 4, 5

Comment

  • Association for Public Art website, accessed August 17, 2015:
    Moved by a sense of pity and justice, the Titan Prometheus stole fire from the gods and made a gift of it to the first humans. For this transgression, Zeus had him chained to a high rock in the Caucasus, where a giant bird of prey pecked at his vitals. He remained imprisoned there for eons until freed at last by Hercules. So runs a familiar version of the Greek myth. In Jacques Lipchitz’s version, however, Prometheus literally takes matters into his own hands. The massive bronze presents the Titan broken free of his chains, strangling the bird that has tormented him. The sculpture is directly symbolic, expressing the ongoing struggle between good and evil, humanity and intolerance.
    At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Lipchitz, a Lithuanian Jew who had emigrated to France, fled Paris with his wife; two years later they arrived in New York, where the sculptor soon rebuilt his career. When the Brazilian government requested a sculpture for a large exterior wall of a new building in Rio de Janeiro, he turned to the Prometheus theme, which he had explored earlier in Paris. Completing a plaster version in 1943, he enlarged it to a 7-foot maquette with the understanding that it would be magnified three times further before casting. The Brazilian government, however, chose to cast the sculpture in its smaller form, and the artist thereupon disowned the work.
    As if he had not endured enough struggle, Lipchitz saw his New York studio go up in flames in 1952. Virtually all of his work in progress was destroyed. By chance, the plaster of the 1943 Prometheus was in Philadelphia at the time, where it won the George D. Widener Gold Medal in an exhibition at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Quickly the Philadelphia Museum of Art purchased the plaster sculpture and arranged for Lipchitz to supervise its casting in bronze. At that time the purchase represented the museum’s largest payment for work by a living sculptor. Now Lipchitz’s Prometheus, with its intense one-eyed stare, continues the eternal battle on the museum steps. Lipchitz also created two other major public works for Philadelphia: The Spirit of Enterprise and Government of the People.
    (Adapted from Public Art in Philadelphia by Penny Balkin Bach, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1992).