See Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Simon-Benjamin_Duvivier (accessed 8 December 2015). Answers.com website: (b Paris, 5 Nov 1730; d Paris, 10 July 1819). Medallist, son of (1) Jean Duvivier. He studied at the Académie, winning prizes in 1744, 1746 and 1756. He succeeded his father as Medal Engraver to the King in 1764 and exhibited at the Salon from 1765 onwards. In 1772 he was appointed Engraver-General of French coinage and in 1776 a member of the Académie. During this period Benjamin engraved a large number of medals, both for the government and for provincial estates, towns and companies. From 1781 to 1789 he was also commissioned to produce a series of medals commemorating the American War of Independence, notably George Washington before Boston (1786; e.g. London, BM), which exemplifies his move towards realism, and the Storming of the Tuileries (1792; e.g. London, BM), which shows a less successful move towards Neo-classicism. Duvivier did his best to win favour with the Revolutionary authorities in France. His medal celebrating Louis XVI's arrival in Paris (1789) was soon followed by another celebrating the overthrow of the monarchy (1792). However, he lost the post of Engraver-General to Augustin Dupré in 1791, and although he received a certain number of commissions under the Consulate and was elected to the Institut in 1806, his reputation never recovered. See also: David Karel, Dictionnaire des artistes de langue française en Amérique du Nord, Québéc, 1992, p. 271-272 (accessible through Google books). See also: Henry Nocq, Les Duvivier: Jean Duvivier, 1687-1761, Benjamin Duvivier, 1730-1819 ; essai d'un catalogue de leurs oeuvres précédé d'une notice biographique et bibliographique, Paris, 1911.